1) How long is the Shenandoah & where does it start?
There are actually three parts to the Shenandoah. All of these rivers are formed when two other rivers join, so there is no single place that these rivers come out of the ground. The Shenandoah River system drains 3000 miles of land.
The North Fork Shenandoah actually "starts" when the Little Dry River and the German River converge up in Brock's Gap near Timberville. The North Fork then flows on the west side of the Massanutten for 101 miles until it reaches Front Royal
The South Fork "starts" when the South River and the North River join in Port Republic about ten miles from Harrisonburg. The South fork flows in between the Massanutten range and the Blue Ridge and Shenandoah National Park 97 miles until it reaches Front Royal.
The Main Stem Shenandoah starts when the North Fork Shenandoah and South Fork Shenandoah join in Front Royal. Then it flows through Warren, Clarke and Jefferson County 55 miles before it joins the Potomac at Harper's Ferry and loses its name.
Within the valley there are thousands of miles of feeders streams, thousands of intermittent drainage channels, thousands of springs. These all join together to make the mighty Shenandoah.